Origin myths of Java island and its volcanic mountains, told in a kakawin, named Tangtu Panggelaran. Ethnic composition in Java can be considered relatively homogeneous, although it has a huge population compared to other major islands in Indonesia. There are two main ethnic groups native to the island, namely the ethnic Javanese and Sundanese. Madurese can also be regarded as a third group: they come from Madura island in the north east coast of Java, and has been a massive migration to East Java since the 18th century.  The number of Java is about two-thirds of the population This island, while the Sundanese 20% Madurese and 10%. 
Four major cultural areas located on this island: the central Javanese culture (Javanese) in the center, the coastal culture of Java (pasisiran) on the north coast, Sundanese culture (Pasundan) in the west, and cultural Osing (Blambangan) in the east. Madurese culture is sometimes regarded as a fifth, given its strong relationships with the coastal culture of Java.  Kejawen regarded as the most dominant Javanese culture. Javanese aristocracy remained located in this region, which is also the region of origin of most of the soldiers, businessmen, and political elites in Indonesia. Language, art, and manners prevailing in this region is considered the most delicate and the Java community role model.  of agricultural land fertile and populous of Banyumas Indonesia stretches from the west to the east Blitar. 
Java is where the founding of many influential kingdoms in Southeast Asia,  and therefore there are a variety of literary works by authors of Java. One is the story of Ken Arok and Ken Dedes, the story of orphans who had become king and marry the queen of ancient Javanese kingdom, and in addition there are also many translations of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Pramoedya Ananta Tur is a famous contemporary Indonesian author, who wrote extensively on his personal experiences growing up in Java, and it takes many elements of folk tales and legends in the history of Java into his compositions.